SYLLABUS FOR CLASS 12 BIOLOGY

SESSION 2022-23

CBSE Syllabus Biology Class 12  is available here. You can download the syllabus in pdf.

The Biology syllabus for class 12 is well designed for the students so that they clear their concepts of Biology. You can follow relevant books and sample papers to get good marks in your exams.

Many important concepts are covered in CBSE Syllabus Biology for Class 12.

BIOLOGY (044)

CLASS XII (2022-23) (THEORY)

UNITTITLEMARKS
VIReproduction16

VII

Genetics and Evolution20
VIIIBiology and Human Welfare12
IXBiotechnology and its Applications12
XEcology and Environment10
 

TOTAL

70

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies, and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;gametogenesis-spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy.

elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honeybee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – hemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene

expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andmicrobes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious  use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

You can download Biology Sample papers here.