SYLLABUS FOR CLASS 11 BIOLOGY

SESSION 2020-21

BIOLOGY (044)

CLASS XI (2020-21)

Unit

Title

Marks

I

Diversity of Living Organisms

12

II

Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals

12

III

Cell: Structure and Function

12

IV

Plant Physiology

17

V

Human Physiology

17

Total

70

UNIT-I DIVERSITY OF LIVING ORGANISMS

CHAPTER-1: THE LIVING WORLD

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy- museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens, keys for identification.

CHAPTER-2: BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

CHAPTER-3: PLANT KINGDOM

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (salient and distinguishing features and a few examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.

CHAPTER-4: ANIMAL KINGDOM

Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (salient features and distinguishing features of a few examples of each category).

(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)

UNIT-II STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS

CHAPTER-5: MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

Morphology and modifications: Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Description of families: Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Liliaceae (to be dealt along with the relevant experiments of the Practical Syllabus).

CHAPTER-6: ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

Anatomy and functions of different tissues and tissue systems in dicots and monocots. Secondary growth.

CHAPTER-7: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS

Animal tissues; Morphology, Anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect-cockroach (a brief account only).

UNIT-III CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

CHAPTER-8: CELL-THE UNIT OF LIFE

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.

CHAPTER-9: BIOMOLECULES

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.

CHAPTER-10: CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

UNIT-IV PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

CHAPTER-11: TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis.

CHAPTER-12: MINERAL NUTRITION

Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

CHAPTER-13: PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS

Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

CHAPTER-14: RESPIRATION IN PLANTS

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

CHAPTER-15: PLANT – GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

UNIT-V HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

CHAPTER-16: DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION

Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

CHAPTER-17: BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

CHAPTER-18: BODY FLUIDS AND CIRCULATION

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

CHAPTER-19: EXCRETORY PRODUCTS AND THEIR ELIMINATION

Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin -angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

CHAPTER-20: LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal systems – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

CHAPTER-21: NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.

CHAPTER-22: CHEMICAL COORDINATION AND INTEGRATION

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.

SR. NO. EVALUATION SCHEME MARKS
1 One Major Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 1,3,7,8) 5
2 One Minor Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 6,9,10,11,12,13) 4
3 Slide Preparation Part A (Experiment No- 2,4,5) 5
4 Spotting Part B 7
5 Spotting Part B 4
6 Practical Record + Viva Voce 5
TOTAL 30

PRACTICALS :-

A: List of Experiments

1. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants, one from each of the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae (Poaceae, Asteraceae or Brassicaceae can be substituted in case of particular geographical location) including dissection and display of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show number of chambers (floral formulae and floral diagrams). Types of root (Tap and adventitious); types of stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo/lily leaves or flashy scale leaves of onion bulb).
5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surfaces of leaves.
6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats in suitable plant and animal materials.
8. Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography.
9. Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
10. Test for presence of urea in urine.
11. Test for presence of sugar in urine.
12. Test for presence of albumin in urine.
13. Test for presence of bile salts in urine.

B. Study/Observer of the following (spotting)

1. Parts of a compound microscope.

2. Specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.

3. Virtual specimens/slides/models and identifying features of – Amoeba, Hydra, liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.

4. Tissues and diversity in shape and size of plant cells (palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem) through temporary and permanent slides.

5. Tissues and diversity in shape and size of animal cells (squamous epithelium, smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.

6. Mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals’ cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.

7. Different modifications in roots, stems and leaves.

8. Different types of inflorescence (cymose and racemose).

9. Human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only.